The second activity, which is required under comprehensive safeguard agreements, is the inspection of the facilities. The purpose of an inspection is to verify that nuclear materials are not diverted and that facilities are not misused to manufacture undeclared nuclear materials. Security agreements ensure that all nuclear activities carried out by a state serve peaceful purposes and that a state does not carry out illegal nuclear activities. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the independent body responsible for enforcing security measures. The term « state-level concept » was first used in 2005 in an IAEA document, although the IAEA has followed the practice since the early 1990s. The state-level approach is used for all states with a comprehensive protection agreement, an applicable additional protocol and a broader conclusion. In a 2013 report, the Director General of the IAEA expressed his intention to continue to develop state-level approaches to implementing security measures for other countries. Here is an overview of the enhanced safeguards under additional protocols and comprehensive safeguard agreements: the initial small quantity protocol was made available to states with minimum or non-nuclear nuclear materials in a « facility ». The initial small quantity protocol suspends the application of many provisions of the Generalized Guarantee Agreement (Part II). While this simplifies the implementation of security measures in a state that has an initial protocol on small quantities, it also entails a number of restrictions. Most protection agreements are comprehensive safeguard agreements concluded by the IAEA with non-nuclear-weapon States, parties to the NPT and nuclear-weapon-free zones agreements. To date, the IAEA has concluded comprehensive safeguard agreements with 175 states. About 100 of these states have also concluded protocols on small amounts of their comprehensive protection agreements.
The five nuclear-weapon States parties to the NPT have entered into voluntary agreements on supply guarantees under which the IAEA applies safeguards for nuclear materials in facilities that the State has voluntarily proposed and has chosen the IAEA for the application of security measures. The IAEA applies safeguards as part of a voluntary offer agreement to ensure that nuclear materials remain in peaceful activities and are not removed from security measures, unless provided for in the agreement. The second part of the « 93-2 programme » required a formal extension of the Agency`s legal mandate in the form of an additional protocol, to be adopted by each NPT member, in order to complement its existing IAEA safeguard agreement. On 15 May 1997, the IAEA adopted a model Memorandum of Understanding. The core of the additional protocol is to transform the IAEA guarantee regime from a quantitative system focused on accounting for known quantities of materials and monitoring declared activities into a qualitative system to obtain an overview of a state`s nuclear and nuclear activities, including all nuclear imports and exports.